A repeater is an electronic device that amplifies the signal it receives. In other terms, you can think of repeater as a device which receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power so that the signal can cover longer distances.

For example, inside a college campus, the hostels might be far away from the main college where the ISP line comes in. If the college authority wants to pull a wire in between the hostels and main campus, they will have to use repeaters if the distance is much because different types of cables have limitations in terms of the distances they can carry the data for.